Organisational culture

   Reflections on the culture of the organization should begin by explaining the basic concepts related to this issue. Studying literature, we encounter many different points of view on this issue. Researchers learning about the organization over many years engaged in the essence and functioning of issues related to the culture of the company. Therefore, in the research literature, there are many different concepts of organizational culture.[1]

            The rest of the work is presented to clarify the concept of organizational culture in terms of different authors specializing in, among others, in research on technological innovation and organizational theory of enterprises, personnel policy and motivation and marketing. The concept of organizational culture is a way of thinking, feeling and action shared, absorbed and assimilated by the employees. This definition complements the approach of organizational culture as a personality, the soul of the company creating corporate identity and distinguishes it from other organizations.  Another definition give J. Stoner, E. Freeman and D. Gilbert, assuming that it is a collection of important concepts such as norms, values, attitudes and beliefs that are shared by members of the organization. Similarly, the corporate culture is defined B. Fryzeł, indicating that the common understanding is outline the common values, which manifests itself in a set of norms and artifacts specific to your organization. The author also points out the differences between culture and corporate climate. Culture, in this sense, its basis is in the values, beliefs and assumptions, which are guided by the organization's members, climate concerns and aspects of the environment that the members of the organization perceive in a conscious way. Different approaches to the term organizational culture may arise from the nature of the scientific discipline in which are analyzed and also on whether the definitions relate to the way of thinking, or course of action.[2]

            Organizational culture is a system of norms, beliefs and values ​​that differentiates the company from others and at the same time has its basis in tradition and history of the company. It sets the direction of the operation through defined objectives and strategy, as well as the shapes social behavior by specific patterns. Organizational culture is one of the key elements that define the identity of the organization. Determines the basis of its functioning, and distinguishes it from other market participants. Culture is a specific way of looking at the environment in which we participate. The perception of this reality is the result of certain ideas, beliefs, principles and values ​​which are specified pattern of behavior. Organizations tend to vary from one system of values ​​that make up the building of organizational culture.  According to Schein's organizational culture is a set of fundamental principles developed by the group in the process of development and assimilation to the environment and internal integration. Existing organizations assumptions and principles should be considered as legitimate and inculcate them to each new member of the group as an exemplary way of thinking. This definition of organizational culture is similar to that suggested E. Morin: "Culture is a system connecting the personal life experiences of people gathered and shared knowledge that is recorded and coded and digestible only for those who know the code, as well as associated configuration enabling the organization and structuring of existing relationships, practices and ideas.[3]

            In terms of marketing the concept of organizational culture is seen as a set of common objectives and ways of understanding the functioning of the organization in relation to the values ​​and expectations, a system of standards, brand awareness. Organizational culture is associated with the brand company, employee behavior and system of values ​​and standards in force within the organization. Brand, human resources and system of values ​​form the culture of the organization.  With advances in the search for the perfect definition of organizational culture we have come to a more extensive characterization. Another definition of culture presented on the example of researchers issues of motivation and human resource management. With regard to personnel policy in the organization they perceive organizational culture as follows. Organizational culture is the basic values, ideologies and assumptions that guide the behavior of individuals and businesses, and shape them. These figures reveal the aspects of legend, ritual, language, jargon, and decoration of offices and style of dress of employees of the organization.[4]

            So culture is a set of tangible and intangible products of human activity, values ​​and recognized methods. An important feature of culture is the intergenerational transmission of its products. Keep in mind that the cultural pattern is an important factor in shaping the standards and behavior of employees. Many different definitions of organizational culture in common is that culture is unique, and is the building block of desired behavior, identity, internal company and its image to the outside. To more fully characterize the culture of the organization, it is present popular model E.H. Schein, distinguished by its three levels, consisting of characteristic elements extracted in terms of observation and awareness: artifacts, recognized values ​​and basic assumptions. The first level, artifacts, it is easiest to observe elements such as products and services, and the behavior of members of the community. These are the visible structures and organizational processes. Margaret Czerska divides artifacts on language, behavioral and physical. Among the artifacts behavioral - patterns of behavior - it is worth mentioning customs, ceremonies, ways of conducting meetings and meetings with clients. Among the artifacts physical, we can distinguish not only the products and services of institutions, but also their quality. So it could also be a way of dressing staff, as well as the location of company headquarters or decor.[5]

            The second level, more difficult to observe, it recognized the value that is given by the organization of the reasons for progressing in a certain way. At this level we find answers to the questions: what is good and what is bad, what goals and strategies adopted enterprise, which tends to value, and what are the rules of conduct. The last level is the basic premise. The third level, difficult to observe and awareness, the beliefs and procedures accepted uncritically and uncontested by the community organization. In the literature you can find various concepts typology of cultural organizations, featuring dozens of types of cultural institutions, according to criteria such division, as the level of risk and rate of feedback, system of values, power distance, focus on employee and work, clarity, degree of dissemination, adaptation , tolerance of uncertainty, dissemination, behavior, perception of the world or the relationship to the environment, etc. The subject of discussion is the degree of the impact of culture on the functioning of the organization, as well as the nature of the interaction. Presented is also divided into rigid and flexible culture and its impact on the effectiveness of management of the institution. Another division presents a strong and flexible (soft) culture, in particular in the context of making changes and reforms and activities in a changing environment.  Questionable is the ability to manage the organization's culture through possible control standards and values ​​in order to create the desired attitudes and behavior. It is hard to disagree with the fact that the norms and values ​​inherent in the underlying assumptions may be difficult to change. A separate issue is the role of management in the long-term shaping that culture.

            How culture affects on motivation and employee loyalty? Different types of worship in a different way influence the behavior of employees. In modern companies managed and development-oriented, in which the culture of the organization consists of people employed there employees are valuable capital. They contribute much to the development of the company and are motivated to better and more productive work. Motivating in the modern sense of the term is a new feature of human resources management, not even to the end of yet definite, especially when it is considered in the context of the needs and requirements of the market economy. In a market economy work is a fundamental value, which makes her motivation takes on a new dimension. Consequently it is a new approach to the analysis and stimulation motivating process - systems approach, which recognizes the multidimensionality and dynamic behavior of people in the organization. Motivating a comprehensive response to the individual situation of work, the tasks performed and the effects of the work, which are variable in time and space and are subject to a subjective judgment and valuation. The meaning of human resource management is to motivate action, which primarily aims at reinforcing in employees a sense of loyalty to the organization to which they belong, increasing the desire to be a member of it and raise work efficiency.[6]

[1] J. Stoner, E. Frejman, „Kierowanie” PWE Warszawa 2011 s.186

[2] B. Fryzeł „Kultura organizacyjna. Poglądy, teorie, zarządzanie” UJ Kraków 2012 s.144

[3] R. Krupski „Zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem w turbulentnym otoczeniu” PWE Warszawa 2011 s.263

[4] O. Lundy „Strategiczne zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi” OE Kraków 2006 s.172

[5] J. Piwowarczyk „Partycypacja w zarządzaniu a motywowanie pracowników” UE Kraków 2006 s.135

[6] Mihaela Birsan „The impast of organizational culture over the competitiveness of contemporaneous companies” Annals of the Univerity of Oradea. Economic Science Series, Dec 1 2008